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Ecrits sur Constantine
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MessagePosté le: 20/11/2015, 16:08    Sujet du message: Ecrits sur Constantine Répondre en citant

تكريم الأديبة أحلام مستغانمي في إطار جائزة بيروت الدولية ( بياف 2014)٠

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HvpjPQj5QGw


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MessagePosté le: 03/12/2015, 03:45    Sujet du message: Ecrits sur Constantine Répondre en citant

Constantine, the most beautiful city you've never heard of

Alice Fordham
May 20, 2013

CONSTANTINE, ALGERIA // "You do not introduce Constantine. She introduces herself, and you salute her. She reveals herself and we discover each other."

So wrote Malek Haddad, an Algerian poet born in 1927 in Constantine - a city not so much built as draped, clinging to ravines and peaks that soar above the river Rhumel.

Algeria's third city is tucked away 100 kilometres inland from the country's long Mediterranean coast. The road sneaks up on the city, snaking up the mountains. It weaves through craggy passes and tunnels blasted in the rock, past forests mirrored in wide lakes, before turning a steep corner and confronting you with Constantine.

"She bursts forth like a glance from the dawn, and she runs on a horizon that she astonishes and raises up," wrote Haddad in the first lines of a series of articles for the Algerian newspaper Annasr in 1966.

He called the first part of the love song to his home A key for Cirta, the name for the city when it was part of the kingdom of Numidia, more than 2,000 years ago, before the Phoenicians, Romans, Ottomans or French started adding grandiose, mismatched architecture to its peaks and plateaus.

As cupolas, minarets and gilded statues appear on the horizon, cliffs on the side of the road drop away suddenly and sheerly, and the Rhumel appears hundreds of metres below. The river in spring is rushing and deep, pouring over rocks in a foaming waterfall, but so far down that its sound is just a muffled splashing.

The road hugs the mountain and curves up towards the city. Bridges begin to appear; the bones that hold the city together. Some, like the slender black suspension bridge and the hefty viaduct built a century ago, are for the cars honking impatiently as they sit in traffic suspended as much as 300 metres above the rocky gorge full of cactus. Others are for pedestrians, elegant folk - one man in a white linen suit and a fez, women in long coloured dresses - strolling and haggling with street vendors as they cross from one mountaintop of their graceful, peculiar city to another.

Caves carved into the rock, believed to be signs of precipitous prehistoric settlements here, peer down over the sides of the gorge. By the time the Numidian empire became the first of several dynasties to spread its warlike way across North Africa, the defensive possibilities of the town on top of the mountain were recognised and a royal family, the Massyli, ruled from here.

It was renamed for the Roman emperor in the 4th century. The name stuck, rendered as Qasantina in Arabic, as the city became Arab hundreds of years later. The old city, walled and fortified, has features of Roman architecture remaining today.

The buildings, official ones such as courthouses as well as elegant residential blocks with strings of washing hanging out over the gorge, owe most of their style to the long French colonial period, though this is not a city of cool blue-and-white like the capital. The warm, faded oranges and pinks of some of the mansions remind one of Italy, and there are architectural surprises. An enormous, modern white mosque stretches giant minarets skyward, and one of the universities was designed by the late Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer.

Business here has long centred on the region's extensive agriculture, and merchants from Europe gathered here centuries ago to trade.There are factories on the banks of the river, and the city still makes much of its money selling the produce of the country's verdant north to its desert south.

But its days of fame and influence seem to be over. Few people come to Algeria simply as visitors, put off by slow visa processes and occasional instability.

"This is the problem of Constantine," said Amira Rabia, 24, a student who has lived most of her life here. "It's a beautiful city and it has its own culture, but people don't know anything about Constantine."

The city has been selected by the Arab League's cultural arm to be the capital of Arab culture in 2015, which Ms Rabia hopes will bring more people - and more fun.

The government has promised to invest heavily in preparation, including building annexes to an arts centre and planning festivals.

"It would be an awesome thing if we had more tourists," said Ms Rabia, explaining the traditions of songs, a particular kind of wedding gown, and a local variant of the dish chakhchoukha that make the city special.

She hopes that some of the investment goes into places for young people to spend their evenings. There is no reason for things to be stuck in the past, she said.

"I think everything should be balanced. I don't want to lose my traditions and be 100 per cent modern ... I want to have a little bit of both, because when you lose your origins, you're nothing."

afordham@thenational.ae

http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/africa/constantine-the-most-beautiful-…


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MessagePosté le: 03/12/2015, 03:49    Sujet du message: Ecrits sur Constantine Répondre en citant

Top Amazing Cliff-Side Towns in the World - World Top Top

And finally, our most loved Cliff Town: 1 – Constantine, Algeria

Named in honor of emperor Constantine the Great, Constantine is often referred to as the “City of Bridges” due to the numerous picturesque bridges connecting the mountains the city is built on. Clinging to the cliffs above the Rhumel River gorge, which plunges hundreds of feet below the city, Constantine takes your breath away with its houses placed on the very tip of the precipice.

This incredible cliff-side town is home to Ottoman palaces, an Oscar Niemeyer-designed university, and ornate hotels from the French colonial era. Still not a huge tourist destination, Constantine in Algeria offers a beautiful, spectacular and stunning sightseeing. Tourists, still not much there, are usually received with warmth and a genuine curiosity.

Read more at http://www.worldtoptop.com/top-amazing-cliff-towns/2/#rCqB6eX0Zv7LILHO.99

http://www.worldtoptop.com/top-amazing-cliff-towns/2/


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MessagePosté le: 03/12/2015, 22:47    Sujet du message: Ecrits sur Constantine Répondre en citant

The Bridges of Constantine

By: Ahlem Mosteghanemi

About The Bridges of Constantine

The Bridges of Constantine is a poignant fresco of Algeria over the last 50 years, a searing love story and a hymn to a lost city. Khaled, a former revolutionary in the Algerian war of liberation has been in self-exile in Paris for two decades, disgusted by the corruption that now riddles the country he once fought for. He has become a celebrated painter, and at the opening of one of his exhibitions, Hayat, the daughter of his old revolutionary commander, unexpectedly reenters Khaled's life. Hayat had been just a child when he last saw her, but she has now become a seductive young novelist.

Khaled is consumed with passion for her, and she comes to embody the homeland and the city he still grieves for – the city he paints over and over again in his canvases. Through Hayat, his past is breathed back into life and he at last begins to confront his feelings about Algeria. But for Hayat, as elusive as she is tender, the question of what one should yearn for is not so simple, and the choices she makes will have devastating consequences for them both.

The first novel in an award-winning, bestselling trilogy that spans Algeria's tumultuous recent history, The Bridges of Constantine is a lyrical and heartrending love story about loss and remembrance, exile and belonging.

Reviews


“The most successful woman writer in the Arab world” – Forbes

“Ahlem has carved a place for herself as one of the most important writers of the Arab world” – Youssef Chahine, Egyptian director, winner of the Cannes Film Lifetime Achievement Award

“With a sublime emotional intensity, Mosteghanemi injects the reader into the mind, heart and soul of her characters, shedding new light on the meaning of yearning, nostalgia and the pain of a disembodied spirit.” – Egypt Today

http://www.bloomsbury.com/us/the-bridges-of-constantine-9781408846407/#stha…


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MessagePosté le: 03/12/2015, 22:55    Sujet du message: Ecrits sur Constantine Répondre en citant

Constantine, Algeria | قسنطينة, الجزائر Capital of Arab culture 2015 | عاصمة الثقافة العربية 2015

World's Highest Bridge 1912-1929

No other city on the African continent is more associated with high bridges than Constantine, Algeria. Located about 50 miles (80 kms) from the Mediterranean coast, the city is unique for having a deep river gorge running right through its center. Four classic bridges cross the deepest section of this natural barrier including the El Kantara, Sidi Rached, Sidi M’Cid and Mellah Slimane (Passerelle Perregaux).
Of the many high bridges that cross the Rhumel River gorge, the highest and most spectacular of all is the Sidi M’Cid suspension bridge. Opened in 1912 and designed by French engineer Ferdinand Arnodin, this cable stayed / suspension bridge hybrid was the highest bridge in the world for 17 years before Colorado’s Royal Gorge bridge opened in 1929. Although the deck measures 575 feet (175 meters) above the Rhumel river, there is a unique, natural “bridge” almost directly under the span that blocks much of the river from view. A similar type of arch and tunnel is also located under the nearby El Kantara bridge. In 2000 the Sidi M’Cid bridge was given a major renovation.
The rare use of a mixed cable support system was not common outside of France and was not used on a major suspension bridge for at least half a century until 1997 when the Wujiang bridge opened in Wujiang, Guizhou province, China. In North America, the only large suspension bridges with cable stays are the Brooklyn bridge in New York, the Roebling bridge (Cincinnati-Covington) in Cincinnati, Ohio and the Wheeling bridge, also in Ohio.
Sidi M’Cid was Arnodin’s second high suspension bridge. The first was the 1887-built L’Abime bridge situated some 295 feet (90 meters) over the Cheran river in Gruffy, France. As an engineer, Arnodin would became most famous for designing 9 of the 20 transporter bridges ever built. Three of these rare transportation structures still exist and retain his signature mix of suspension and cable stays.

http://whotalking.com/flickr/Constantine


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MessagePosté le: 03/12/2015, 23:00    Sujet du message: Ecrits sur Constantine Répondre en citant

Constantine, my home city

http://constantine.ucoz.com/


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MessagePosté le: 04/12/2015, 00:29    Sujet du message: Ecrits sur Constantine Répondre en citant

Colonialism Through the Veil

Why Constantine?

What was the big deal about Constantine? Why was France willing to expend thousands of French lives in two separate campaigns (1836 and 1837) to take the city?

Prior to the first French military campaign to conquer the province of Constantine in 1836, parts of Captain Saint-Hippolyte’s notes about Constantine were incorporated into a military report and sent to the Minister of War on August 30, 1836.

In the introduction, the author writes that “Of the three Beyliks of the Algerian Regency, the most extensive, the richest, and the most important was that of Constantine in the East,” which was bordered by the sea, the Jurjura Mountains and salt marshes, and the Regency of Tunis.[1]

Not only was it important to give General-in-Chief Bertrand Clauzel a sense of location and prominent geographical features, it was also vital that he understood the value of this province. With coastal access to the north, an eastern border with Tunisia, and the desert to the south, Constantine was a hub of trade networks that connected sub-Saharan Africa, eastern North Africa, and the Mediterranean. The report observes, “Farther away is the desert whose solitude is frequently [broken] by caravans coming from the center of Africa toward Tunis and Tripoli in particular, which having frequent enough relations with Turkey, offers an avenue to products from the Tropics.”[2]
French military commanders and travelers, alike, repeatedly described the province of Constantine as the most extensive, richest, and most important of the three beyliks of Algeria, and foremost among them in the production of wax, honey, butter, wheat, barley, livestock, and coral.

It was a coveted gem and one that French administrators believed to be the linchpin of their colonial strategy and ultimate success.[3] It was therefore essential that the French conquer, survey, map, and claim as much of this territory as possible.

The French were successful in their second attempt, breaching the wall and overwhelming the city. Their depredations in Algiers and Bône were well known to the citizens of Constantine, who preferred to risk their lives rather than try to protect their property from the avaricious French soldiers and officers.

From his perch on the cliffs at Constantine, Jean-Joseph-François Poujoulat recorded with horror the human toll of the 1837 French conquest of this Algerian stronghold:
‘I stooGorges of Rhummeld on the edge of the terrifying ravines and stared at the sloping peaks over which thousands of men and women, trusting the abyss more than the mercy of the French victors, sought to escape. Their means of salvation were ropes attached to the upper walls of the rocks. When these ropes broke, human masses could be seen rolling down this immense wall of rock. It was a veritable cascade of corpses.'[4]

Following the collapse of the Constantinois resistance, thousands of men and women sought escape into the gorges of Rhummel. Hundreds fell to their deaths when frail ropes snapped, and many more lost everything they had when they abandoned their property to the French, who confiscated it for the public domain.

Following the initial invasion, the French parliament insisted on at least a modicum of legality in land appropriations. The next post will explore some of the ways in which France sought to rationalize its land policies through legislation.


[1] “Expédition de Constantine: Notes extraites des Mémoires du Capitaine Saint-Hyppolyte.” 30 Août 1836. 80 MIOM 1672, no. 1. ANOM.


[2] Ibid.


[3] Note de M. Lebois-Lecomte à M. Thiers sur la situation de l’Algérie au 1er octobre 1840. F80/1673 2, Archives Nationale d’outre-mer (ANOM).


[4] Jean-Joseph François Poujoulat, Voyage en Algérie: Etudes Africaine (nouvelle edition) (Paris: Librairie d’éducation,1868), 244. Translation from Mahfoud Benoune, The Making of Contemporary Algeria, 1830-1987 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 38.

https://colonialismthroughtheveil.wordpress.com/2013/07/10/why-constantine/


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